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Department of Business




While the purpose of the Institute of Extra Mural Studies (IEMS), in general, is to bring the university to the people and the people to the university, the mission of the Business and Management Development Division (IEMS), specifically, is to educate the out-of-school population of Lesotho and engage in the general skills transference process while simultaneously preparing them for academic and professional development, in the business related environment.


For more information please contact:

The Head of Department

Business and Management Development Division (BMD)

IEMS, P/Bag A47, Maseru 100

Tel: + 266 2232038



The Business and Management Development Division (BMD), of the Institute of Extra Mural Studies (IEMS ) offers  two credit programmes: the Diploma in Management and the Bachelor of arts in Business and Entrepreneurship (BABE) degree. The sub-degree programme is offered in Maseru on a part-time basis, with class being conducted in the evenings and during the day from Monday to Friday, and during weekends at Roma and in the regional centres of Leribe (Mahobong), Mohale‚s Hoek and Tseba-Tseka. The degree, however, is delivered by supported distance learning, which is combination of face-to-face teaching and distance learning as the mode of delivery.



It is an empirical fact that there is little or no existence of the spirit of entrepreneurship in Lesotho. Two major challenges, therefore, face both the University and the country today: unemployment and the consequent poverty levels abound throughout the country. In this regard, the University is responding to these challenges by offering both the Diploma in Management programme and the BABE degree.  


BMD Staffing


Present Staff Complement


Six established posts for


2Senior Extension Educators

2Extension Educators

1Assistant Extension Educator


Academic Staff:


Professorial Post: Vacant

Senior Extension Educator: Vacant


Extension Educators: 

  • Raphoka Matooane Dip. Ed (NUL) B.Ed. (NUL) MBA (University of Botswana)
  • K. W. Lofafa B.A. Econ., PGCE, M.Ed (NUL), Ph.D (on- going)
  • T.M. Makara  BA Sociology and Public Administrations (NUL), MSc Development Planning (WITS University.
  • M. Mojalefa Diploma in Secretarial Studies (LP), Graduate Dip in Management Studies (ICM, UK), PGD in Humana Resources Management,  MBA (HRM) ‚ North West University, Ph.D (Business Management and Admin (on- going)
  • M.E.  Nketekete  BA Ed.  (NUL), Bed (Hons), B.Comm Econ & Business Management (UNISA), MSc (University of Twente, Netherlands)


Senior Volunteer Extension Educator : D. R. Croome (Volunteer) BA (Hons) Politics  and  Economics (Durham),  MA Economics and Finance (Pennsylvania) 


Administrative Staff:

Secretary: M. Molapo

Executive Officer: L.N.  Mokoma


Programme Structure 

The structure of the business programmes offered at BMD is based on the need to groom a productive individual who will not need extensive training, but one who will easily and quickly adapt to the conditions and environment which he or she is employed and is expected to deliver with minimum supervision requirements.


The Diploma in Management programme (DPM), prepares learners for the enormous task of generating employment themselves, through self-employment techniques they learn. It also prepares them to be both more productive and innovative in their workplaces.


The Bachelor of Arts in Business and Entrepreneurship (BABE), degree   however, trains the candidates at an advanced level in the face of global opening of markets. It is designed such that a candidate will only be admitted to it after having successfully completed the three- year Diploma programme. Initially, all candidates will register for a set of compulsory courses and then proceed to subsequent years where, together with the required business placement between the third and fourth years, the programme shall form a self-sufficient pathway in business and enterprise, with special reference to small business enterprises in developing countries such as Lesotho. 





General Objectives 

The main objective of the Diploma in Management programme is to contribute to the development and accelerated growth of the local business sector; by offering formal university-based academic and professional-oriented business management training to would-be:-


a) Local business entrepreneurs who after graduation would be able to successfully launch new business enterprise, efficiently manage/operate existing ones and also become job creators;
b) Job-seekers who would be: (i) highly skilled in business management and (ii) competitive within both the public and private sectors job market; and
c) Applicants for admission into university based degree progammes in business and social sciences related areas of study.  


Specific Objectives 


After successful competing the 3-year Diploma in Management programme of study, a student would have acquired skills which would enable him/her to:


i)Formulate business plans, initiate the launching of new business venture, operate and manage small scale and medium size business enterprises.


ii)Maintain accurate and up-to-date business records pertaining to accounting, sales, personnel, stores and production operations.


iii)Carry out business operations analyses, interpret business-related data, and prepare management decision-support business.


iv)Operate and maintain manual and computerized financial accounting records.


v)Appreciate, interpret and implement legal requirements relevant to business enterprise.

vi)Facilitate in the creation, management and maintenance of an organizational climate at the workplace that is conducive to positive industrial relations and high levels of worker productivity.


vii)Efficiently execute middle management and supervisory duties/functions within an organization.


viii)Efficiently compete for employment opportunities within the public and private sector for job opportunities within the field of business management.


ix)Qualify for admission into university based degree programmes in the business management and social sciences related areas of study.




7.1The Diploma in Management programme is offered on a part-time basis over period of three academic years (3 years) in two semesters; commencing in August, for the first semester, and January for the second semester, respectively.


7.2Lectures are held on each working day of the week and each lecture 9:00 ‚ 11:00 a.m. sessions for each course consists of two (2) hours facilitation time, 5:30 ‚ 7:30 p.m. sessions for Maseru.  However, classes for the other regional campuses are conducted during weekends, Saturday 8:30a.m. ‚ 3:30p.m, and Sunday 8:30a.m. ‚ 1:00p.m.










Candidates should have a minimum of GCE with Pass in Mathematics and English Language. Other equivalent qualifications recognized by the National University of Lesotho will also be considered.


Candidates who sat for LGCSE should have a minimum of six subjects from at least four groups.  The candidates should have at least attained a minimum of Grade D in both English Language and Mathematics.  The minimum Grades in the other subjects should be E or other equivalent qualifications recognized by the National University of Lesotho will also be considered.


Career Opportunities: Accountant, Human Resources Manager, Researcher, Industrial Relations Manager, Insurance Manager, Marketing Manager, Entrepreneur (Business)



Diploma in Management

The programme structure consists of the following courses:



DPM101-4AB Financial Accounting I

DPM102-4AB Communication Skills I

DPM103-2B business Economics I

DPM104-4AB Introduction to Business Mathematics

DPM105-2A Principal of Management 

DPM106-4AB Business Law



DPM201-4AB Financial Accounting II

DPM202-4AB Communication Skills II

DPM203-2A Business Economics II

DPM204-4AB Quantitative Techniques

DPM205-2A Business Statistics

DPM206-2B Computer Applications 

DPM207-2B cost Accounting



DPM301-4AB Business Finance

DPM302-2A Information Systems 

DPM303-4AB Human Resources Management

DPM304-4AB Principles of Marketing 

DPM305-2B Production and Operations Management 

DPM306-4AB Small Business Management


‚¢All courses are compulsory and no exemption is offered to any student in any course at any time. 




a)Final examination for courses in the Diploma programme are normally held twice in an academic year; in December and in May.

b)Course work and examination shall be apportioned in the ratio1:2, respectively.

c)All courses MUST be passed before any student can proceed to the following year or graduate at the end of the third year of study.

d)A student obtaining an overall year mean score of 50% or above, but having scored between 40% and 49% in any one or more courses, shall be allowed to sit for supplementary examination, usually in July of the same year, in NOT MORE THAN TWO supplementable courses.




7.6.1Overall Weighted Mean (OWM)


a)At the end of the academic year, for the first year of study, a student‚s marks shall be compiled as a weighted average of all the course marks for the year, to determine whether the student proceeds/repeats courses/year or fails 

b)In the second year of study, the student‚s assessment is based on the cumulative OWM of each year in order to determine whether such a student can proceed to the next year or not

c)In the third and final year of study, the cumulative OWM, over the three years, shall be calculated in order to grant the student the pass level commensurate with the grade obtained. 

d)In the event that a student does not progress continuously, but repeats courses or years of study, along the way, the OWM shall be calculated based on the year mean of the repeat year.




a)Proceed from year to year 


To qualify to proceed to any subsequent year of study, a student shall have:


i)Scored a final mark of at least 50% in each of the courses prescribed to be taken during a given academic year 

ii)Obtained an overall weighted year mean of 50% or above

iii)Obtained a cumulative OWM of 50% or above


b)Supplementary examinations


i)A student shall be allowed to supplement a maximum of two courses in which she/he obtained a grade that is between 40 ‚ 49 marks provided the OWM is 50% or above.

ii)The maximum mark obtainable by any student in a supplementary examination shall be 59%.

iii) A student who scored an OWM of 48 ‚ 49 with a possibility of raising it to 50% may also be allowed to sit for supplementary examinations.  


c)Cannot proceed ‚ repeat courses/year


i)A student shall be allowed to repeat a failed course if, and only if, such a student has scored an overall weighted year mean score as well as a cumulative OWM score of at least 50% (except where the Faculty of social Sciences regulations or University regulations direct otherwise).


ii)A student shall be allowed to repeat a maximum of two (2) failed courses during any given year. No courses shall be carried over to any subsequent year of study. Failing more than two (2) courses will cause the student to repeat the entire year of study.


iii)A Student who obtains a cumulative OWM of 50% or above, but fails to obtain the minimum overall weighted year mean of 50% will not proceed but will repeat the year, provided it is not a repeat year.


iv)A student who fails to obtain the cumulative OWM of 50% shall fail and will be required to repeat the year, provided it is not a repeat year.


v)A student shall be allowed to repeat a year only if she/he has obtained a year‚s OWM of at least 40%



d)Fail and discontinue from programme 


i)A student shall be allowed to repeat failed courses subject to provisions of the regulations of both the University and the Faculty of Social Sciences, otherwise where such regulations do not pronounce themselves on the matter, the student shall be discontinued from the programme for failing (a) failed course(s)


ii)A student  shall be allowed to repeat a year provided that is not a repeat year, otherwise such a student shall be discontinued from the programme, subject to the provisions of the regulations of both the University and the Faculty of Social Sciences


iii)A Student who obtains an overall weighted year mean or a cumulative OWM score of less than 40% in any given year shall be discontinued from the programme.


e)Classification of pass levels 


Pass levels (for years 1 & 2) are categorized as follows:


i)Proceed with distinction: 80% - 100%


ii)Proceed with merit: 70% - 79%


iii)Proceed:50% - 69%


iv)Fail:below 50%


Pass levels for the third and final year are:


v)Pass with distinction: 70% - 100%


vi)Pass with credit 60% - 69%


vii)Pass50% - 59%


viii)Fail:below 50%


Course Descriptions/Synopses


DPM 101 ‚ 2AB: Financial Accounting I


An introduction course which deals with the basic purpose of accounting, accounting concepts and terminology, double entry book-keeping and procedures used in book-keeping and accounts, the use of journals and ledgers, and the preparation of simple financial statements and control accounts.


DPM 102 ‚ 2AB: Communication Skills I


Covers a variety of topics including: communication theory, how to read effectively, effective writing, how to take notes and examination techniques and business communication techniques and procedures.


DPM 103 ‚ 2B: Business Economics I


The course covers the basic principles of economics, resource scarcity, choice and opportunity cost, economics systems, price theory, consumer theory, theory of production, theory of costs, market structures, economic efficiency and equity.


DPM 104 ‚ 2AB: Introduction to Business Mathematics


Students will be introduced to decimals, fractions, estimation, signed numbers, discount, interest, ratios and percentages including percentages rates of growth, metric units, scale reading, coordinates, scales, drawing and interpretation of different types of growth, as well as business mathematics applications in business operations.


DPM 105 ‚ 2A: Principles of Management


The course covers an analysis of the basic managerial processes and functions at the administrative, staff and operational levels of the firm. Attention will be given to the role of organizational theory as it applies to achieving managerial objectives.


DPM 106 ‚ 2AB: Business Law


Introduces to the student the essential elements of business contracts and addresses the consequences of a void contract, the grounds for avoidable contract etc. Emphasis is placed on business law as it relates to sales, agency, mortgage, insurance etc. An introduction to partnership law and company law will also be covered.


DPM 201 ‚ 2AB: Financial Accounting II


Focuses on the preparation and interpretation of financial accounts of different types of firms, manufacturing, trading and profit and loss accounts, the basic accounting concepts and procedures as well as the use financial accounting data for decision making, including the preparation income tax returns for businesses.


DPM 202 ‚ 2AB: Communications Skills II


The course provides students with an understanding of practice in using the study skills appropriate to business environment. Students learn about study skills, comprehension, note taking, writing, and language skills. Emphasis will be in business operations, including the preparation of business documents/reports and business venture proposals.


DPM 203 ‚ 2A: Business Economics II


This is the continuation of Business Economics I. The course covers national accounting income, the circular flow of income, unemployment, inflation, money and banking, the role of financial institutions in Lesotho, as well as micro- and macro-economic theory applications to the Lesotho economy.


DPM 204 ‚ 2AB: Quantitative Techniques


This course covers exponents, algebraic, equations, inequality functions and graphs and their applications and relevance to business management problem situations.


DPM 205 ‚ 2A: Business Statistics


This course covers the nature of statistical data, population and samples, variables, frequency distributions, sigma notation, measures of central tendency, measures of variation, simple linear regression analysis models and correlation, index numbers and introduction to probability.


DPM 206 ‚ 2B: Computer Applications


The course reviews the history of computers; the computer as an information processing system as well as the need for and use of information in organizations. It introduces students to computer hardware and software used in the areas of Accounting and Management. Emphasis is placed on operating system, word-processing, spreadsheets and their applications in business operations.    


DPM 207- 2B: Cost Accounting     


The course provides an introduction to concepts, basic techniques and application of cost and management accounting in a modern business environment. Attention is paid to cost elements of product, overhead allocation, and introduction to standard costing, budgeting, variance analysis, pricing strategies and CVP relationships.


DPM 301 ‚ 2AB: Business Finance 


Introduces students to the area of business finance and focuses on the sources of finance as well as short term and long term forms of finance. Emphasis is place on financing of objectives of small firms. The course also covers working capital management, interpretation of financial statements and local international monetary and capital markets as well as preparation of business venture feasibility for small-scale enterprises.




DPM 302 ‚ 2A: Information Systems


The course introduces students to the concepts of systems theory and the integration of subsystems into business/management information systems. It focuses on the characteristics of information technology in business operations and reviews strategies which are useful in the implementation of effective business systems. It also introduces students to date analysis, database design, the practical use of business-oriented software, computing packages and applications, and e-commerce operations.    


 DPM 303 ‚ 2AB: Human Resource Management 


This course focuses on the techniques and skills which are utilized in the area of Human Resources Management. It covers management responsibilities dealing with people, the role of Human Resources Management function with an organization as well as in the recruitment, selection and performance appraisal processes, and the management of the industrial relations, health and safety at the work place.


DPM 304 ‚ 2AB: Principles of Marketing


Emphasis is placed on marketing as a basic function within a firm and in the economy. Focuses on the relation between marketing activities and the consumer and addresses both functional and institutional components of marketing, analysis of the product, distribution channels, price and promotion.


DPM 305 ‚ 2AB: Production and Operations Management 


The course surveys the major production and operations functions of firms. It stresses the identification of major problem areas associated with these functions such as aggregate planning, process design, quality control and the development of concepts and decision processes which are used to deal with the management of production function in both manufacturing and services enterprises.  


DPM 306 ‚ 2AB: Small Business Management


The course examines small businesses from the perspective of owner/manager and focuses on launching, organizing and operating small scale enterprises; local and regional small scale business support structures; as well as the formulation and implementation of small business management strategies. Students will be expected to develop business plans for both sale-scale and medium scale business ventures/enterprises. 




8Programme Objectives

a)General Objectives


Through the achievement of the following General Objectives within the context of NUL‚s Transformation Mission, the BABE degree will;


i)Equip the participants with knowledge, competencies and skills necessary for a practical approach to planning, strategic decision-making and operational problem solving in the business situations.


ii)Produce high-level human resources that are motivated by and prepared to take the opportunities available for individual entrepreneurship in the business sector.


iii)Produce business leaders/entrepreneurs who are visionary, realistic and courageous to develop innovative business ventures  


iv)Increase employment opportunities in the private sector through creation of viable and sustainable enterprises.


v)Provide more and better human resources to enhance the response of government to the needs of small business in Lesotho


b) Specific Objectives


Through the achievement of the following specific Objectives within the context of NUL‚s transformation goals, the BABE degree will;


i)Provide NUL Diploma holders in Business Studies and Management with the opportunity to extend and improve their business and enterprise-related skills up to first-degree level and above


ii)Provide high quality graduates with outcome-based expertise in nationally demanded fields in business and entrepreneurship.


iii)Provide graduates with the maximum opportunity for self-employment and career advancement.

iv)Enable graduates to get maximum exemptions towards further professional qualifications and postgraduate studies.


v)Develop a resource unit at IEMS based on vigorous and relevant entrepreneurship studies through which the University and the Institute can be linked with local Small Micro and Medium Enterprises (SMMEs).


vi)Equip civil servants with the knowledge and skills to support the Government‚s policies and activities towards local business, especially SMMEs





Requirements: the NUL Diploma in Business Studies /Diploma in Management passed with Distinction or Credit or other equivalent Diplomas recognized by the National University of Lesotho will also be considered.


Career Opportunities: Researcher, Human Resource Manager, Entrepreneur (self ‚ employer), Accountant, Auditor, Bank Manager, can enroll for further Professional qualifications or Post Graduate Studies.


8.2Programme Duration 


The normal period for completion of the degree programme will be four (4) years. However, a student will be allowed a maximum period of seven (7)years to complete.


8.3Assessment Procedures 


i)A range of techniques including formal examinations will be adopted to assess all courses and tests, students‚ essays, and reports on project work.


ii) The ratio of course work to examinations shall be 30%:70%, gained from an end of course (traditional, closed book) examination held under usual University examination practice and assessed course work (comprising assignments, regular tests and attachment).

Marks will be awarded for each course unit as follows:


Grade Point

90 -100A+ ‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦.

80-89A ‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦ 5

75-79B+ ‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦..4.5

70-74B ‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦4

65-69C+ ‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦. 3.5

60-64C ‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦....3

55-59D+‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦. 2.5

50-54D ‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦.. 2

40-49E Fail ( Supplementable)  1.0

Below 40  F ‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦‚¦.. 0  




Students can only proceed to the next year provided they meet the following requirements:

‚¢Must have obtained an overall weighted mean (OWM) of 50% or above of the courses taken that year.


‚¢Have a maximum of two courses to carry over to the next year, provided those courses to be carried over are not prerequisites and overall weighted mean (OWM) of 50% or above is obtained.


The following marks based on course-work and the final examination will be used to determine the type of progression at the end of each year‚s course evaluation.

-Proceed with distinction80 and above

-Proceed with merit70-79


8.5   Assessment

(i)OWM will be calculated on 36 credit hours.

(ii)In order to qualify for the award of the BABE degree a student must obtain an overall weighted mean of 50% or above.


8.6Supplementary Examinations

(i)A student shall be allowed to supplement a maximum of two (2) courses, in which she/he obtained a grade of E, that is a score between 40% and 49% provided the OWM is 50% or above.

(ii)The maximum mark obtainable by any student in a supplementary examination shall be 59%.

8.7Repeat Courses

Any student who fails (a) prerequisite course(s) cannot proceed to the next year but will repeat the failed course(s).

The following courses in the programme are not pre-requisites and students could carry them over to the next level:

Year 1BBE 100Communication skills

BBE 102Introduction  to Leadership & Community Development.

BBE 103Psychology in Business

BBE 106Computer Applications

Year 2BBE 200Business Environment 

BBE 205Business and Contemporary Issues 


Year 3BBE 301Ethics and Social Issues  

BBE 303Investment Planning and Management


i)A student who fails (a) course(s) shall be allowed to repeat a maximum of 12 credit hours in any given year, provided such a proviso is not in conflict with 8.4 (i) above. 

ii)A student in any year of study, who has an outstanding course(s) from the previous year cannot proceed to the next year, until such (a) course(s) has/have been taken and passed.


8.8   Fail and Repeat the year

i)Any student who fails more than two courses after supplementary shall not proceed but repeat the year; provided 8.4 (i) and (ii) are not violated.

ii)Any student who obtains an overall weighted mean (OWM) of less than 50% cannot proceed but MUST repeat the failed year.  


8.9Repeat the year


Any student who fails three or more courses shall not proceed to the next level even if the OWM is 50% or above.


8.10Fail and Discontinue


(i)Any student who fails four or more courses and obtains an OWM of less than 40% at the end of any academic year shall be discontinued from the programme and NUL.


(ii)A student who has been discontinued from the programme can re-apply after a period of two years, subject to having acquired some relevant qualification(s) or worked in a responsible position, since leaving the University.


8.11Award of the Degree 

8.12Number of Credits

(i)In order to qualify for the award of the Degree, a student must have taken and passed a total of 144 credit hours.

8.13Classification of the BABE Degree shall be as follows:

IFirst class =75 and above5

II( i)Second class First Division=70-744

II (ii)Second class Second division=60-693

P Pass=50-592

8.14  Course Structure


The set of courses proposed for the degree are shown below. 


All courses are compulsory.





BBE 100-6B: Communication Skills

BBE 101-6A:Introduction To Business

BBE 102-6A:  Introduction To Leadership And Communication Development

BBE 103-3A:Psychology In Business 

BBE 104-6B:Business Economics 1

BBE 105-6A:Quantitative Methods

BBE 106-3B: Computer Applications




BBE 201-3A:The Business Environment 

BBE 202-6A:Entrepreneurship 1

BBE 203-6A:Marketing Principles & Procedures

BBE 204-6B:Management Accounting

BBE 205-6B:Business Economics 2

BBE 206-6B:Business and Contemporary Issues




BBE 300-6A:Entrepreneurship II (Small Business)

BBE 301-3A:Ethics and Social Issues In Organizations

BBE 302-6B:Principles and Management of Tourism

BBE 303-6A:Investment Planning and Management 

BBE 304-6B:Research Methods in Business Enterprise

BBE 305-6B:  Human Resources Management 

BBE 306-3B:Project Management




BBE 400-6A:Business Organization & Control

BBE 401-6A:Services Marketing 

BBE 402-6A:Foreign Trade Management

BBE 403-12AB:Research Project

BBE 404-3B:Issues in Public Sector Management 

BBE 405-3B:Business Policy


Course Descriptions/Synopsis 


YEAR ONE: Total Credit Hours: 36



This course is designed to introduce students to the general areas of business communication.  Some specific aspects of the discipline such as the meaning, purpose, type and process of communication in general and business communication in particular will be dealt with.  Over and above that, students will be exposed to the models of communication for the purpose of understanding the nature of information flow in business operations.


This course will serve mainly as an introductory course to the world of business.  It examines business practices and those factors that affect the success and failure of Business Ventures.  It introduces the major concepts behind business planning and operation and students will be given opportunity to study, discuss and apply the principles and methods of business organization.


This course is intended to expose students to the conceptual framework of leadership and community development.  The course will sensitize students to the importance of leadership in organization and community development, through knowledge and understanding of the principle, requirements and function of leadership.  Students will also be exposed to some core strategies and approaches in community development with examples drawn from different situations, as case studies.


The course will explore the basic nature of motivation including early efforts to learn what motivates people.  The course will consider a general model of the motivation process.  The course will examine theories that are based on individual drives such as the drive for achievement.  It will also look into energising approaches that emphasise cognitive aspects.  It will focus on how individuals think about where to direct their efforts and how to evaluate outcomes relative to business and entrepreneurship initiatives.  The course will analyse social learning theory and consider its implication for promoting business and entrepreneurship innovation in the context of Lesotho.



This course is prerequisite for BBE 205.  It provides an introduction to the key parts of economics that business people need to understand.  They will use examples drawn from business to illustrate economic ideas.  The content will build from the knowledge of basic economic concepts acquired in the Diploma in Management Studies.  After an introduction to economics and business, particularly in the context of Lesotho, BBE 104 will deal with the microeconomics of Markets and Prices, Optimisation of Production and Profits, Firms and Competition and other important topics such as labour markets, investments and organizational structures.


The course comprises elements of both business mathematics and business statistics.  Students will be exposed to more applications of the two disciplines, to enhance their knowledge for the purpose of assessing the performance of their business.  The course will enable the students to manage their profits and direct their finances effectively.



The course is designed to promote basic knowledge of information and communications technology (ICT).  The major component of this course would be hands-on training to facilitate practice.  Students will be introduced to basic components of a computer, how each component operates and how it relates to the rest of the computer.


Students will also be introduced to the concept of how to use computers to communicate internally as well as externally in a business situation.  This will entail such concepts as electronic mail (e-mail), basic Internet concepts (browsers, websites, URLs, etc.)


YEAR TWO:Total Credit Hours:36


The course presents a review of the main internal and external forces likely to be affecting the business person, particularly in light of the experience of Lesotho since independence and the RSA since 1994.  Economic influences will be studied in the context of the main models of economic development, and will cover economic dependency, the North-South divide, poverty reduction and income distribution. Political aspects, and structure of government as well as public decision-making, impact of international political organizations, such as the United Nations Agencies, African Union, Social and Technological factors will be analysed.



The course is designed to give the necessary management background of what is involved in creating a new enterprise.  The course focuses on the specific aspects of starting a company. It is intended for participants who are seriously considering entrepreneurship as a career option.  It will cover key aspects of launching a business from initial idea to growth and international expansion.  This course will provide a detailed introduction to the role and nature of business planning.  The student will be introduced to four key types of business plans, namely, a start-up plan, an existing business operating Plan, an export Plan and an import Plan.



The course provides a comprehensive coverage of marketing at the introductory level i.e. marketing system, its operation and coordination.  It is structured in such a way that it takes the student in a logical manner through the marketing concepts, principles, and tasks, which face typical organizations operating in today‚s business environments.  Following an explanation of the marketing concept, the course will cover the three key steps of the marketing process, namely:  (i) the need for organisation to understand its potential customers, their needs, wants and their priorities, (ii) the need for an organisation to develop a product or service, which meets customer‚s needs more effectively and (iii) the need for an organization to inform potential customers that the product or service exists and demonstrates how it does meet their needs better than competing products of services.



This course focuses on the provision and use of management accounting information for planning, control and decision-making.  The course encourages an understanding of the management accounting function within an organization by taking a business value chain perspective.  The process of budgeting (operational and financial) and performance measurement as an aid to management in planning and controlling business activities is reviewed.  Also included is a study of the principles of Job and Process costing systems, the application of activity based costing, the analysis of cost behaviour, as well as other facets of accounting which management decision making.



This course follows BBE 105 to extend the introduction to the key parts of economics that business people need to understand.  The content will build up from the knowledge of basic economic concepts.  Specifically it will deal with macro economic topics, including National Product and Income, Macroeconomic Policy, Balance of Trade and Payments, Business cycles and long-term Economic Growth.  All learning will be related to the business experience in the 14 SADC Countries in the world economy.



This course exposes the learners to the critical issues that shape the environment within which a business subsists and which will make or break such a business.  An awareness of and creative response to these contemporary issues will help prepare a conducive environment that will nature a business.  At the national level, these contemporary rate, the issue of HIV and AIDS at work place impact on business, the issue of gender and its dynamics within the Lesotho culture, the issue of Lesotho Vision 2020 with emphasis on democracy and peace.



YEAR THREE:Total Credit Hours: 36


The course leads students through the theory of network development, individual business assessment, and strategic partnering selection.  It also shows the student how to network for clients, suppliers, go-between, business partners and operational allies, as well as for other key business contacts. The course will also look at strategic alliances, and speciality agreements, and the tools SME managers and owners need to have access to if they are to leverage their own resources to capture a larger share of the global market.



The course introduces students to the major management sub-disciplines of human resources management and industrial relations, governance, financial management, and marketing, and to the ethical issues that may confront enterprises, managers and governing bodies.  The course recognises the distinctive mission and character of enterprises while seeking to provide an understanding of management excellence and integrity.  Thus, the course will explore a range of management and ethical issues confronting the business sector, and use case studies to develop an understanding of the complexities of managing in this sector.



This course will address the distinct needs and problems of service organizations in the area of marketing.  Topics include: the difference between marketing in service versus manufacturing organizations; marketing mix for service organizations; managing both service quality and supply and demand, and the overlap of marketing/operations/human resource systems in service organizations.



The course will cover the whole range of common investment instruments such as stocks and bonds, as well as derivatives like options, warrants and convertibles.  Further, the course will explore recent developments in the design of management accounting systems that aim to support planning and control processes more closely.  The course will explore themes and techniques of modern asset management practices including risk management and strategic planning at the portfolio and property levels.


The course will help the students to understand research in business and entrepreneurship either in connection with their initiatives as managers or as a research project requirement.  The course aims at providing introductory information that will enable students to make informed start on management or project work.  Students will be made aware of the appropriateness of the range of available approaches to research for business, to be in a better position to justify their choices and evaluate their subsequent findings.  The course will provide learners with a wide range of approaches to management research and their philosophical basis sufficient to be readily applicable to business and entrepreneurial problem solving.



The course is intended to provide students with a comprehensive, knowledge and understanding of the latest relevant theories, practices and functional activities of human resources management that lead to improved employee performance at workplace.  It examines the design and use of organizational human resources systems to achieve market advantage.  Emphasis is placed on exploring the decisions managers must make to obtain an appropriate number of qualified employees to maintain an effective and efficient work force and to motivate them to achieve organizational competitive objectives.



This course provides the student with a detailed overview of the concept, process and principles of project management.  Issues on project planning, staffing, work scheduling, budgeting, flowcharting and project control are examined at length.  The students will be familiarized with a variety of tools that are widely employed in project management.  Special emphasis will be placed on the concepts of feasibility, financial sustainability and cost-benefit analysis.


YEAR FOUR:Total Credit Hours:36


This course will deal with the establishment of purpose: the pursuit of effectiveness and the struggle for efficiency in organizations.  It will examine these from the viewpoints of various stakeholders within the functional hierarchies of the normative, utilitarian and coercive organizational forms.  General Systems Theory and Cybernetic Approaches will be covered.



This course will deal with the nature and characteristics of tourism, its history, and future trends and how its impact can be measured.  It will deal with the economics of tourist demand, social and cultural aspects and how tourism affects the environment.  The particular role of tourism in economically disadvantaged societies and how governments and other organisations can plan to increase tourism revenues will be examined.



This course will focus on foreign trade strategy in the changing global economy.  The evolution of international business and the current global business environment are analysed.  Trade technology, competitiveness and national policy are related to international business strategy.  National business environment and cultures are analysed with emphasis on international strategy.  Key aspects of doing business overseas are viewed, emphasizing international strategy in action.  Students will develop a broad vision of foreign trade and its likely future challenges as well as practical skills in strategic analysis.



In this course the students, individually or preferably in groups, research, write and present for external comment, a business plan for a simulated small Business.  This business plan exercise will be based on the knowledge and skills acquired through BBE 300 Entrepreneurship II NETWORKING.  It is generally accepted that preparing an effective business plan should take 200-300 hours.  The student will use this time in selecting and researching a viable business idea, exploring the marketing, financial, organizational aspects of putting this into practice. 



This course is an independent study in which the student explores in depth some contemporary challenges and issues of Business development and sustainability, particularly in the context of regionalization and global markets.  A wide range of issues such as franchising, stock market, economics, fiscal policy, monetary policy and international investment will be researched and addressed. 



This course will examine changes and impacts, which have affected the public sector over time.  The course will also examine the key stakeholders involved in the public sector.  It examines the theory and practice, which underlies public sector activities and considers the management of internal components, external constituencies, public sector accountability and public sector ethics.  The course will utilize International comparisons to reflect the changing nature of the public sector and provides insights to future trends facing the sector beyond the 21st century.  Emphasis will be given to the functions, constraints and institutional framework of Public Sector as an instrument for an equitable distribution of collective and services.





This course is intended as a comprehensive course that extends and integrates course work in the functional areas of accounting, finance, marketing, human resources and operations management.  The critical role of formulating and implementing management policy and strategy consistent with overall organizational direction, values and goals will be introduced.  With the use of cases involving complex business problems in both profit and non-profit organizations, students will be challenged to apply integrative strategic thinking, imagination and creativity supported by the most recent research findings in this area.